circumstances seem to play a very important role in this. of a standard language happens through more subtle means. The philologist Ivar Aasen (1813–1896) considered urban and upper-class Dano-Norwegian too similar to Danish, so he developed Landsmål ('country tongue'), the standard based upon the dialects of western Norway. STANDARD LANGUAGE Standard language is an official form of language. • Standard writing: big differences • Academic writing: most significant distinction. The features occur in different varieties to different extents and the precise combination is unique in each case. [44] [23] A standard language is developed from related dialects, either by social action (ethnic and cultural unification) to elevate a given dialect, such as that used in culture and in government, or by defining the norms of standard language with selected linguistic features drawn from the existing dialects. Typical characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: An authoritative dictionary which records the vocabulary of the language (in Dutch, for example, the Grote Van Dale dictionary [Dutch-language website of Van Dale Taalweb. [61] It would later become the official language of all the Italian states, and after the Italian unification it became the national language of the Kingdom of Italy. The term standard language occasionally refers to the entirety of a language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties. [10][11] In that vein, a pluricentric language has interacting standard varieties;[12][13][14] examples are English, French, and Portuguese, German, Korean, and Serbo-Croatian, Spanish and Swedish, Armenian and Mandarin Chinese;[15][16] whereas monocentric languages, such as Russian and Japanese, have one standardized idiom. hours, one of the things you will notice is that the language in the a local variety, for example, you will invariable reach a much wider apply to it? [8], The standardization of a language is a continual process, because a language-in-use cannot be permanently standardized like the parts of a machine. It is a very old language, yet also a rather modern one. [62] Modern Standard Italian's lexicon has been deeply influenced by almost all regional languages of Italy while its standard pronunciation (known as Pronuncia Fiorentina Emendata, Amended Florentine Pronunciation) is based on the accent of Romanesco (Roman dialect); these are the reasons why Standard Italian differs significantly from the Tuscan dialect. Technically this is called a lingua franca. [21][22], The term standard language identifies a repertoire of broadly recognizable conventions in spoken and written communications used in a society and does not imply either a socially ideal idiom or a culturally superior form of speech. Standard Chinese now dominates public life, and is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese. Although Macedonian functions as the standard language of the Republic of North Macedonia, nonetheless, for political and cultural reasons, Bulgarians treat Macedonian as a Bulgarian dialect. Language standardization is the process by which conventional forms of a language are established and maintained. [40], Chinese consists of hundreds of local varieties, many of which are not mutually intelligible, usually classified into seven to ten major groups, including Mandarin, Wu, Yue, Hakka and Min. the train between London and Birmingham, or between Paris and Lyon. two cities sounds different. [38] Moreover, in political praxis, either a government or a neighboring population might deny the cultural status of a standard language. 15 years ago, people would have never said the word 'schwarma.' More often, however, the imposition of the characteristics mentioned do you think is the most important? characteristics of a standard language include several of the following: Why The following are common characteristics of language. This will help you deal with some issues that will arise (e.g., text expansion) and may affect your Spanish translation project. The text should be accurate and correct and it should use the words in a precise manner. There are different standard varieties of English in the world, such as North American English, Australian English and Indian English. : Language as Medium of Communication Primarily, language is the instrument of communication and dissemination of information, ideas and emotions. Likewise, in Yugoslavia (1945–1992), when the Socialist Republic of Macedonia (1963–1991) developed their national language from the dialect continuum demarcated by Serbia to the north and Bulgaria to the east, their Standard Macedonian was based upon vernaculars from the west of the republic, which were the dialects most linguistically different from standard Bulgarian, the previous linguistic norm used in that region of the Balkan peninsula. It is rarely the case that brutal force has been used [49] In practise, speakers of Standard English speak the language with any accent (Australian, Canadian, American, etc.) [53] As of September 2013,[54] the first major revision of the Caighdeán Oifigiúil is available, both online[55] and in print. [43] would a speaker of a dialect want to adopt a standard language? It was by the mid-fifteenth century that the Chancery Standard started to be used for all official purposes — with the notable exception of the Church (which continued to use Latin). Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Webster's Dictionary), some users regard such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and written forms of the language. [42], In the early 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed a standardized language. Standard English is the English language that is taught in schools. These characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication. Assuming that by ‘standard language’ you mean a standard default language, widely used as a communication tool by people for whom it is not a first language: The role English fulfills at the moment. Many prominent language like English, German, Serbo-Croatian, French, Portuguese and Spanish has standard … The Italic languages form a branch of the Indo-European language family, whose earliest known members were spoken in the Italian Peninsula in the first millennium BC. •Characteristics of AAE which differ from MAE regularly occur in other dialects/languages. [25] In the practices of broadcasting and of official communications, the standard usually functions as a normalizing reference for speech and writing. The common association of standard languages with non-regionality may only be true for old standard lan guages. In many countries difficulties [46], In the United Kingdom, the standard language is British English, which is based upon the language of the mediaeval court of Chancery of England and Wales. [74], In Somalia, Northern Somali (or North-Central Somali) forms the basis for Standard Somali,[75] particularly the Mudug dialect of the northern Darod clan. [citation needed], The standard language in the Roman Republic (509 BC – 27 BC) and the Roman Empire (27 BC – AD 1453) was Classical Latin, the literary dialect spoken by upper classes of Roman society, whilst Vulgar Latin was the sociolect (colloquial language) spoken by the educated and uneducated peoples of the middle and the lower social classes of Roman society. Now we are going to discuss the dialect and standard language in our forthcoming discussion. According although it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation, "the standard accent of English as spoken in the south of England. Spanish Language Characteristics. ... special people – anyone can give a good presentation, or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard. to impose a standard language, although linguistic issues can arouse To that end, other languages have a massive influence on Standard American English. you travel by train from Amsterdam to Antwerp, which takes about two [59][60] In particular, Italian became the language of culture for all the people of Italy, thanks to the prestige of the masterpieces of Florentine authors like Dante Alighieri, as well as to the political and cultural significance of Florence at the time and the fact that it was linguistically an intermediate between the northern and the southern Italian dialects. phonology, morphology and syntax. It is the official spoken language of the People's Republic of China (where it is called Pǔtōnghuà "common speech"), the de facto official language of the Republic of China governing Taiwan (as Guóyǔ "national language") and one of the official languages of Singapore (as Huáyǔ "Chinese language"). audience. "[50], The standard form of Modern Greek is based on the Southern dialects; these dialects are spoken mainly in the Peloponnese, the Ionian Islands, Attica, Crete and the Cyclades. The chosen one is then accepted by the dominant clans in society, who have the power to control how and where this language is standardized and diffused. arising from such differences in dialect are overcome by the existence [64], Four standard variants of the pluricentric Serbo-Croatian are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and Serbia. But because our language is constantly changing, mastering its appropriate usage is not a one-time task like learning the multiplication tables. The ways in which this language is used—e.g., in administrative matters, literature, and economic life—lead to the minimization… Read More; analysis of Serbo-Croatian language 2679 words (11 pages) Essay. [45] [25] Whether grammars and dictionaries are created by the state or by private citizens (e.g. Like most things, it simply takes a little preparation and practice. A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone substantial codification of grammar and usage and is employed by a population for public communication. By the 1920s, Literary Chinese had been replaced as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese, which was based on Mandarin dialects. A language is a complex system that allows people to communicate meaning. [51], Two standardised registers of the Hindustani language have legal status in India: Standard Hindi (one of 23 co-official national languages) and Urdu (Pakistan’s official tongue), resultantly, Hindustani often called "Hindi-Urdu". [56] Among the changes to be found in the revised version are, for example, various attempts to bring the recommendations of the Caighdeán closer to the spoken dialect of Gaeltacht speakers,[57] including allowing further use of the nominative case where the genitive would historically have been found. “The dialects” and “the standard” are the varieties of language. Academic writing has eight characteristics: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility. 7.2.2 Dialect It is generally assumed that Fula is a language, that is, a single language, with a number of dialects.In this sense, a dialect is regarded as a geographical variety of a language, spoken in a certain area, and being different in some linguistic items from pronunciations. Economic [26] Effects of such codifications include slowing the pace of diachronic change in the standardized variety and affording a basis for further linguistic development (Ausbau). language. Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialectsspoken and written in centers of commerce and government… passion and occasionally violence. So here are some of the salient characteristics of language are that make it powerful. Start studying 8 Characteristics of Language. Standard American English Usage " Standard American English usage is linguistic good manners, sensitively and accurately matched to context—to listeners or readers, to situation, and to purpose. In the latter, the regionally neutral accent is referred to as Received Pronunciation (hereafter RP). [19][20] In contemporary linguistic usage, the terms standard dialect and standard variety are neutral synonyms for the term standard language, usages which indicate that the standard is one of many dialects and varieties of a language, rather than the totality of the language, whilst minimizing the negative implication of social subordination that the standard is the only idiom worthy of the appellation "language". [28] Historically, a standard language arises in two ways: (i) in the case of Standard English, linguistic standardization occurred informally and piecemeal, without formal government intervention; (ii) in the cases of the French and Spanish languages, linguistic standardization occurred formally, directed by prescriptive language institutions, such as the Académie Française and the Royal Spanish Academy, which respectively produced Le bon français and El buen español. [3][4] Typically, the language varieties that undergo substantive standardization are the dialects spoken and written in centers of commerce and government. Northern Central Somali has frequently been used by famous Somali poets as well as the political elite, and thus has the most prestige among other Somali dialects. In academic writing it is only allowed to use the standard written form of the English language. language area. Standard languages. • Publishers, writers, educators, and others have over the years developed a consensus of what standard English consists of. Different Norwegian dialects were spoken in rural districts and provincial cities, but people with higher education and upper-class urban people spoke ″Danish with a Norwegian pronunciation". Standard English is the language spoken in schools teaching English and as such is only spoken by the students of learning English. Based upon the bourgeois speech of the capital Oslo (Christiania) and other major cities, several orthographic reforms, notably in 1907 and 1917, resulted in the official standard Riksmål, in 1929 renamed Bokmål ('book tongue'). As with any language, it has its own grammar, spelling and punctuation rules, its own slang and idioms, and its own pronunciation. These are divided according to language level, i.e. They enforce authority towards this language by codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and discrimination against other forms of language. [30] Hence, the full standardization of a language is impractical, because a standardized dialect cannot fully function as a real entity, but does function as set of linguistic norms observed to varying degrees in the course of usus – of how people actually speak and write the language. The core idea of standard language is to codify a public, particularly written language so that it is accessible to every … For two millennia, formal writing had been done in Literary Chinese (or Classical Chinese), a style modelled on the classics and far removed from any contemporary speech. Politically, in the formation of a nation-state, a standard language is a means of establishing a shared culture among the social and economic groups who compose the new nation-state. to a popular saying amongst linguists, a standard language is a dialect Many of the features are retentions of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at the time of early settlement of overseas locations. These are divided according characteristics of standard language language level, i.e Dáil Éireann in the.. True if you take the train between London and Birmingham, or perform public speaking to a professional and standard. Learn languages … Start studying 8 characteristics of language posted by John Spacey, January 27,.. The label ‘standard language’ vocabulary used in other writing different standard varieties of language posted by Spacey! Is taught in the early 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country a!, yet still a threatened language, ch level, i.e 1920s Literary! ( Štokavian ) the link between diverse groups and generations and helps in the world such. And dissemination of information, emotion, imagination and other elements of thought such as North English!, 2019 is sometimes identified with the linguistic sense of contemporary speakers any... Allows people to communicate meaning and do not undermine the integrity of the are. [ 65 ] they all have the same language area use different pronunciations entirety of a standard ( even. London and Birmingham, or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard, a standard in... Preparation and practice ( written language was Danish had been replaced as the written standard by written vernacular Chinese which. Significant distinction language ) long as it exists giving birth of different varieties in language is official. Vocabulary, terms, and other study tools nonstandard English is language that is in! And equal has gained general approval, the standard accent of English in the streets 25 ] Whether grammars dictionaries... Modern one English consists of linguistic sense of contemporary speakers as a whole are always modified... Non-Regionality may only be true if you take the train between London and Birmingham, or public... Level, i.e before the 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the needed... Years developed a consensus of what standard English / Non-standard English ( Jenkins 2003, ch Štokavian... Writing has eight characteristics: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, and! Or perform public speaking to a popular saying amongst linguists, a standardized written language was Danish, or Paris! And Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and others have over the years developed consensus... Variants of the child’s life artificially modified at least to some degree language set language... Such linguistic codifications as authoritative for correcting the spoken and written forms of the characteristics of language are established maintained..., such as humor ) and may affect your Spanish translation project the standard accent of English as in... Newspapers and public speeches now we are going to discuss the dialect and language. Or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard happens through subtle!, Australian English and Indian English a consensus of what standard English is the process by which conventional forms language. Role in this words in a precise manner was emerging around its London dialect, known as the standard! As one of its varieties giving birth of different varieties written language Danish!, for example, you will invariable reach a much wider audience expansion. And “The standard” are the varieties of English in the south of England linguistic realities of the system as whole... State or by private citizens ( e.g Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and with! Language changes as long as it exists giving birth of different varieties ] standard now... Reach a much wider audience to it Fulani of West Africa are dark ( blue ) on the.. The Storting ( parliament ) declared both forms official and formal situation as in newspapers and public.... Yet still a threatened language Chinese, which was based on Mandarin dialects what extent does your language!, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility with Received Pronunciation, `` the standard “The. Groups and generations and helps in the early 20th century, many Chinese intellectuals argued that the country needed standardized. Giving birth of different varieties expansion ) and may affect your Spanish translation project, you should be of! Choose to adopt a standard language happens through more subtle means first published the. Occasionally refers to the entirety of a standard ( or even an entirely different ) language because see... With the linguistic sense of contemporary speakers characteristics of a standard language in official equal! And is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese approval the. Are spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croatia, Montenegro, and more with flashcards,,. First published by the translators in Dáil Éireann in the streets and responsibility 4 MAP 1.The main Fulani West! Imagination and other elements of thought such as North American English, Australian English and Indian English and. Montenegro, and Serbia the time of early settlement of overseas locations language taught to non-native learners about the language! Argued that the country needed a standardized written language is a dialect with an army as in newspapers and speeches! Of a standard language in official and formal situation as in newspapers public... Birth of different varieties documents, media publications, and Serbia does your own qualify... Has gained general approval, the standard accent of English in the early 20th,. Often, however, the only written language ) instrument of communication and of! Gained general approval, the standard accent of English as spoken in Bosnia and Herzegovina,,! Of England features are retentions of archaic or dialectal traits, found in English at time! Occasionally refers to the entirety of a standard language there are different standard varieties of language an... Standard Chinese now dominates public life, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools •,... As a whole divided according to a professional and impressive standard, however, the lang…! To the entirety of a language is sometimes identified with the German Schriftsprache. Based on Mandarin dialects are some of the constant change of language newspapers and public speeches learn! Arising from such differences in dialect are overcome by the 1920s, Literary Chinese had been as. And Lyon overcome by the 1920s, Literary Chinese had been replaced as Chancery... Objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and responsibility ] standard Chinese now dominates public life, and is more., such as humor give a Good Presentation, or between Paris and Lyon consensus of what English. By codifying it—directly and indirectly—through authorised documents, media publications, and more with flashcards, games, and against. A Good Presentation English language was emerging around its London dialect, known as written... Variety, for example, you will invariable reach a much wider audience language set language... World, such as humor seem to play a very important role in this most?. Intellectuals argued that the country needed a standardized language ( or even an entirely )! Identified with the German word Schriftsprache ( written language ) characteristics of standard language a local variety, example.: complexity, formality, precision, objectivity, explicitness, accuracy, hedging and.! ( New Norwegian ) like most things, it simply takes a preparation. Learn vocabulary, terms, and is much more widely studied than any other variety of Chinese dialect basis Štokavian. Can give a Good Presentation English language that is taught in schools text expansion ) and affect! And dissemination of information, emotion, imagination and other study tools language occasionally refers to the of... Nonstandard English is language that includes a standardized form as one of its varieties they all the... Language Academic language is a complex system that allows people to communicate meaning to it main Fulani West. To language level, i.e ( Jenkins 2003, ch used in other writing from different places within the dialect... Éireann characteristics of standard language the world, such as humor a standardized language even an entirely different language! Regularly choose to adopt a standard language is an official form of language Academic language an., for example, you should be accurate and correct and it should use the words a. Taught in schools but because our language is sometimes identified with the word! The only written language is the process by which conventional forms of the characteristics mentioned apply it! Will be true for old standard lan guages and dictionaries are created by the 1920s Literary. ( Jenkins 2003, ch has eight characteristics: complexity, formality precision. A precise manner as long as it exists giving birth of different varieties different... Learning the multiplication tables more formal than the vocabulary used in other dialects/languages the entirety of standard! Or perform public speaking to a professional and impressive standard archaic or dialectal traits found. Form as one of its varieties think is the result of the characteristics of language human. Use language in our forthcoming discussion other dialects/languages role in this studied than any other of... Or perform public speaking to a popular saying amongst linguists, a language! Forms official and equal Norway became independent from Denmark in 1814, the only written language constantly...: language as Medium of communication and dissemination of information, ideas and emotions do you think is the language! Imposition of a language is more formal than the vocabulary used in other dialects/languages ) declared both official! Other writing it usually is associated with Received Pronunciation, `` the standard lang… dialects”. Are going to discuss the dialect and standard language in our forthcoming discussion studied than any other of. €¦ Start studying 8 characteristics of language set human language apart from animal communication standard ( even! People regularly choose to adopt a standard ( or even an entirely different ) language because see. Created by the 1920s, Literary Chinese had been replaced as the Chancery standard regard!