Mantle convection gives rise to seafloor spreading and a distinct style of magma production and evolution in a steady-state standing magmatic mush column capped by passive thin sills. Systems can be defined at a range of scales, from river drainage basins (watersheds or catchments) and coastal cells (sediment transport cells) to individual hillslopes, dunes, or cliffs. By continuing you agree to the use of cookies. It is the third planet from the sun. Earth's surface results from the competition between deep processes induced by the tectonic system that deforms, raises, or lowers the topography, and, from surface processes controlled by the erosion-transport system that destroy the highs and fill the lows. Earth's surface carbon cycle has been the subject of much attention due to the societal importance of that element as a fuel and a greenhouse gas. It was learnt that slope and curvature are significant variables of Earth's surface analysis in the early 1980s (Evans, 1980). The key to accentuating and enhancing this silicic signal is through systematic reprocessing. Most incoming solar energy is absorbed by the atmosphere. Earth is known as the densest planet in the Solar System and the largest among the inner planets. This point will be elaborated in Section 5.6.3 of this chapter. …, it is conventional measurement of length. Recently, new tools for paleoelevation's determination based on stable isotope paleoaltimetry (13C-18O bonds) provide new evidence for the dynamics of surface uplift and the nature of its driving mechanism in the Andes (Garzione et al., 2008; Ghosh et al., 2006b; Hoke et al., 2009) and in Tibet (Garzione, 2008). B.D. The Lithospheric Plates that define the surface dynamics of Planet Earth. Taking into account the duration of tectonics and geomorphic events, it is evident that the interactions between deep-Earth and surface-Earth systems depend on the relative rates and response times of one system with respect to the other. Van Den Driessche, in Treatise on Geomorphology, 2013. However, turbation by biota alone is rarely able to explicate all differences between the materials closest to the surface and those beneath, especially if clast contents, stable-mineral composition, or other properties—outlined above to discriminate disconformities—diverge remarkably; or, if primary sediment features such as clast orientation have been preserved. The solar irradiance is measured in watt per square metre (W/m 2) in SI units.Solar irradiance is often integrated over a given time period in order to report the radiant energy emitted into the surrounding environment (joule per square metre, … 1. A. Kleber, B. Terhorst, in Developments in Sedimentology, 2013. Join now. The atmosphere of Venus is too thick—the planet's surface temperature is more than 460 degrees Celsius (860 degrees Fahrenheit). Paleoelevation data are, in general, sparse in continental regions; generally they cover only a very small part of a plateau, preventing them being used as representative of the whole plateau (e.g., Molnar et al., 2006). In regards to land, the continent of Asia covers about 30% of all the land, having around 60% of the world’s population. This outer layer formed a hard, rocky crust as lava cooled about 4.5 billion years ago. However, it is often assumed that bioturbation has even produced the “epidermal” upper part of the soils, with other processes being subsidiary at most (Johnson, 1990; Johnson et al., 2005; Paton et al., 1995; Schaetzl and Anderson, 2005). The crust is very thin, relative to the radius of the planet. ... 2 the solid part … Relevant examples include establishment of gully systems, migration of sand dunes, river planform changes, coastal cliff recession, and the growth and breakdown of shingle barriers. Get an answer for 'Describe the earth's present condition. These signatures have the capability to affect Earth surface processes. Earth is the only planet in the solar system to have one moon. Accordingly, this concept crosses discipline boundaries, involving essentially all fields of earth and life sciences (Brantley et al., 2007). Rather, eolian addition may come from older, reworked materials, may be syngenetic with the deposition of the respective sediment, or may, indeed, be admixed later. Only a small fraction of energy radiating from Earth is from the atmosphere. Recent advances in mapping technologies, such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), hyperspectral imaging, and ground penetrating radar have dramatically increased the spatial and temporal resolution of. The Earth’s surface acts as a diffusive boundary that separates the atmosphere from the lithosphere, resulting in a global topography determined by the interaction of tectonic and climatic processes. E.M. Lee, ... P.G. (d) people do not measure properly with it .IM​, Hi guys how many of u use snapchat The water is 3% fresh and 97% salted. Second, the force of the water onto the Earth’s surface gradually wears it away. Endogenetic and exogenetic interactions result in landforms and landscapes that are the product of numerous different processes, and thus are ‘polygenetic’ in origin. Earth's surface displays a rich diversity of igneous rock from which most other rocks are derived. The processes that produce this strong bimodality are physical processes, buttressed by chemical processes, associated with a prevailing tectonic theme. REASON: it increase the fertility of soil.thus is true or not.​, find a shady semi -open place for compost pot​. The impact dislodges the soils particles from others. It does not put forward an alternative concept but a concretization of the substrates and structures in the core of the critical zone. An oblate spheroid is almost a sphere only with slight differences like the aforementioned. Seeing planet Earth from space for the first time. Log in. Magmatic processes in and of themselves operate within a vast array of tectonic environments, but the processes involved in the behavior and evolution of magma are finite and understandable within a clear physical and chemical framework. The Earth's surface morphology is a consequence of dominant forcing such as tectonic uplift, erosion, sediment transport, and climate. Consequently, the study of plateau uplift, regional warping and subsidence focus on extensive landmasses. Around 71% of the surface is covered by water and 29% by land. 3. Geospatial information science (GISc)-based analysis and modeling plays an important role in integrating observations and models, and improves understanding and prediction capabilities aimed at minimizing negative impacts of erosion and sedimentation. Silicic noise is produced within the solidification fronts of basaltic systems on small local scales. In fact, in terms of the fundamental theorem of surfaces (FTS), a surface is uniquely defined by the first and the second fundamental coefficients (Somasundaram, 2005). anamaeluciano anamaeluciano 06.10.2020 Science Secondary School Which of the following best discribes the surface of the planet earth 1 See answer anamaeluciano is waiting for your help. Which one gives the primary reason why the surface of Venus today is some 450°C hotter than the surface of Earth? The Nb concentration of the BSE is ~ 2.6 × 10− 9 mol g− 1 (0.240 ppm Nb, McDonough and Sun, 1995), the mass of the BSE (mantle + crust) is 4.03 × 1024 kg, and the BSE must contain 1.0 × 1019 mol Nb. Recently, the Earth science community also started to consider biota as a geomorphological agent that has a role in shaping the Earth surface, even if at a different scale and magnitude than that of other major forcings. H. Sinclair, in Reference Module in Earth Systems and Environmental Sciences, 2014. Join now. Key issues in the evolution of polygenetic landscapes included examining the role of tectonics and isostatic uplift, the nature of exhumation rates, climate control and erosion distribution, glaciers and relief production, focused erosion and spatial coincidence, geomorphometry and erosion modeling, and equilibrium concepts such as topographic steady state. Earth definition: Earth or the Earth is the planet on which we live. Which of the following best discribes the surface of the planet earth​, SECTION-AQ.1) The hand span is an unreliable measure of length because(a) it varies from person to person. Low rates of surface uplift (<0.5 mm yr−1) can be explained by crustal shortening, thickening and consequent isostatic compensation, whereas high rates of surface uplift (>0.5 mm yr−1) during one or several millions of years have their origin in mantle dynamics (Garzione et al., 2006). In the early 2000s, it was found that Earth's surface systems are controlled by a combination of global factors and local factors, which cannot be understood without accounting for both the local and global components. We provide examples in different regions of the world. Explanation: 71% of earth is made up of water The Nb concentration in the continental crust is ~ 9 × 10− 8 mol g− 1 (8 ppm Nb, Rudnick and Gao, 2003), while that of the oceanic crust is ~ 2.7 × 10− 8 mol g− 1 (2.5 ppm Nb, Stracke et al., 2003). From: Encyclopedia of the Solar System (Second Edition), 2007 Geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label … SAVED WORDS dictionary. b. A diagram of Earth's location in the observable universe. The controls on this flux and how it has evolved through Earth history is a first-order problem for the Geosciences linking a range of disciplines such as geomorphology, sedimentology, stratigraphy, mountain building and large-scale geochemical cycling. Describe the present condition of the 'mother earth.'' Its “surface” has the fastest winds of any planet in the Solar System at up to 2,100 kilometers per hour. Evidence of plateau uplift will be discussed in Section 5.6.2 of this chapter. Mackenzie and Lerman (2006) and Sundquist and Visser (2003) reviewed the carbon budget of Earth's surface. This corresponds to a lower limit on the C content of the mantle of 7.2 × 1021 mol (0.3 × 1021 kg CO2, 75 ppm CO2). The third planet from the sun, Earth is the only place in the known universe confirmed to host life. A fundamental theorem of earth surface modeling (FTESM) is abstracted on the basis of applying HASM to simulating surfaces of elevation, soil properties, changes of ecosystem services, and driving forces of ecosystem changes on multiscales for about 20 years (Yue et al., 2016). Of that 3% freshwater, over 2% is frozen in ice sheets and glaciers meaning that less than 1% is freshwater found in lakes, rivers, and the underground. The Earth is divided into 7 continents that constantly … Though known for long (e.g., Yaalon and Ganor, 1973), the addition of eolian matter to soils derived mainly from other materials may be considered as one aspect of current critical-zone research (Derry and Chadwick, 2007). HASM completes its operation when its output satisfies the iteration stopping criterion which is determined by application requirement for accuracy (Zhao and Yue, 2014a). GAMES BROWSE THESAURUS WORD OF THE DAY WORDS AT PLAY. In addition, systems can be used to evaluate the potential impacts of a project on landforms at sites distant from the project; for example, reclamation of an intertidal wetland can have significant effects on the whole estuary, through the resulting changes to the tidal prism and mean water depth. Remote sensing provides important data that allow us to gain insights into interactions between physical processes and environmental conditions that control erosion and landform evolution. The Earth does not expand because plates interact in two other ways besides sea-floor spreading (Figure 3-2). anamaeluciano is waiting for your help. If eolian addition took place mainly through the current interface, the modern surface, one might expect a continuous decrease in eolian-matter contents with increasing depth, which is often not the case (e.g., Kleber, 2011). N. Dauphas, A. Morbidelli, in Treatise on Geochemistry (Second Edition), 2014. Earth has one natural satellite, the Moon. Calculate the pressure if a force of 150N applied on a rectangular tile of 5m *4m. Add your answer and earn points. Which of the following best discribes the surface of the planet earth - 24803771 1. ... c. a greenhouse effect that heats a planet … The key to analyzing magmatic systems is to gain an integrated physical perspective of the overall process of magma production, transport, and emplacement or eruption. Several different ways of modeling the Earth as a sphere each yield a mean radius of 6,371 km (3,959 mi). Irrespective of the scale, each system comprises an assemblage of individual components (i.e., the landforms) and transfers of energy and sediment (Figure 1). Synonyms: globe, planet, world… Antonyms: mite, peanuts, pittance… Find the right word. The major advantage of this concept is its focus on the impact of organisms on near-surface materials, which had often been neglected previously. This second action becomes more vivid when you study the impact of a drop of water on a sandy surface. For example, changes in land use in the catchment headwaters can lead to changes in flood frequency and river channel change elsewhere. The phenomena and processes in the critical zone are acknowledged to be crucial for sustaining life on the planet (Rasmussen et al., 2010). Erosion processes that form the land surface are extremely complex, poorly understood, and hard to predict quantitatively over large landscapes (Finlayson and Montgomery, 2003). Soil erosion is a serious problem in the humid tropics. Surface modeling has greatly progressed since the early 1990s, with rapid development of remote sensing (RS) and a geographical information system (GIS), as well as the accumulation of spatially explicit data. This pole … Earth is a spherical body (planet) with a distance of about 93 million miles from the star it orbits. !....​, Deficiency of vitamin D causes which diseases (a) ricket (b) beri-beri (C) scurvy (d) none of above​, ASSERTION: rhizobium bacteria found in root nodules of leguminous plant. Earth Surface The Earth's surface is a dynamic union of its solid crust, its atmosphere, its hydrosphere, and its biosphere, all having acted in concert to produce a constantly renewing and changing symphony of form. An earth surface system is a set of interconnected components of the earth surface environment that function together as a complex whole. This vertical movement is generally referred to as “rock uplift” following England and Molnar's (1990) definition. Figure 1. and find homework help for other Geology questions at eNotes Abrupt and dramatic landscape changes are likely to be significant over a time-scale of 10 to ∼100 years. The atmosphere contains 6.6 × 1016 mol C with a δ13C of ~− 8‰. Planet Earth definition: the third planet from the sun , the only planet on which life is known to exist. Location: near Kunming, Yunnan Province, … Mantle processes responsible for high rates of surface uplift are (among others): mantle lithosphere delamination following intracontinental subduction (Bird, 1978); convective instability of cold, dense thickened-lithospheric mantle in orogens; and, its replacement by relatively hotter and lighter mantle asthenosphere (England and Houseman, 1989; Houseman et al., 1981). The Hadean (/ ˈ h eɪ d i ə n, h eɪ ˈ d iː ə n / HAY-dee-ən, hay-DEE-ən) is a geologic eon of the Earth pre-dating the Archean.It began with the formation of the Earth about 4.6 billion years ago and ended, as defined by the International Commission on Stratigraphy (ICS), 4 billion years ago. Answer: D. a "blue planet" covered mostly by water . This book presents a close look to the composition and structure of the critical zone's solid materials on slopes and to some of the aspects regarding their role as an interface. Recount the Moon’s birth story. The interdependency between layered subsurface and vegetation has already been demonstrated by Heinrich (1991), who analyzed effects of a strong storm event that threw trees that had developed less deep rooting on nutrient-rich threefold cover-bed successions, whereas deeper rooting trees on meager twofold successions remained staying alive. Latheronwheel, Caithness: Whittles Publishing. Underneath the water that fills the oceans, and the dirt and plants that cover the continents, the Earth's surface layer is made of rock. 4. Engineering project cycles are generally in the order of 10–100 years (occasionally longer), and this relatively limited duration of ‘engineering time’ imposes a constraint on the types of landscape changes that are relevant to engineering geomorphology. SINCE 1828. T.X. Lets find out seafloor spreading? The internal structure of Earth is divided into concentric shells: an outer silicate solid crust, a highly viscous asthenosphere and solid mantle, a liquid outer core whose flow generates the Earth's magnetic field, and a solid inner core.Scientific understanding of the internal structure of Earth is based on observations of topography and bathymetry, observations of rock in outcrop, samples brought to the … This site is using cookies under cookie policy. Activity 2: Where It All Begins? Earth is the third planet from the Sun with an approximate distance of 149.6 million kilometres (93.0 million miles), and is traveling nearly 1.6 million kilometres per hour (1 million miles per hour) through outer space. More, in the understanding of plateau generation, rock uplift data only may not be a pertinent measure of plateau uplift since the surface uplift equals the rock uplift minus the erosion (or tectonic denudation) (England and Molnar, 1990; Molnar and England, 1990). The remaining 71% is covered with water, mostly by oceans but also by lakes, rivers and other fresh water, which together constitute the hydrosphere. Recent advances in mapping technologies, such as Light Detection and Ranging (LiDAR), hyperspectral imaging, and ground penetrating radar have dramatically increased the spatial and temporal resolution of Earth surface and shallow subsurface monitoring. But it is the understanding of the intimate coupling of spatial physical processes with phase equilibria that furnishes the greatest insight into the true processes that shape magma and Earth itself. To significantly reduce uncertainty of simulating Earth's surfaces, we suggest an alternative method, high accuracy surface modeling (HASM), which takes global approximate information (e.g., RS images or model simulation results) as its driving field and local accurate information (e.g., ground observation data and/or sampling data) as its optimum control constraints (Yue et al., 2007). Physical systems are a means of describing the interrelationships between different landforms. Most of the changes occur in response to variations in the energy inputs into physical systems, including variations in rainfall intensity or total, in temperature, in river flows (discharge and sediment load), and in wave/tidal energy arriving at the coast, over a range of time-scales. The eruption of a new volcano creates a new landform. Distances from points on the surface to the center range from 6,353 km (3,948 mi) to 6,384 km (3,967 mi). You can specify conditions of storing and accessing cookies in your browser. Surface modeling began to be used in the 1960s, with the general availability of computers (Lo and Yeung, 2002), but because it requires powerful software and a large amount of spatially explicit data, its development was limited before the 1990s. The C/Nb atomic ratio of MORBs is ~ 1120 (i.e., CO2/Nb ~ 530 ppm ppm− 1; Cartigny et al., 2008; Saal et al., 2002). For that reason the relative rates and response times act on the resulting topographic evolution. Du, in Developments in Environmental Modelling, 2016. Marsh, in Treatise on Geophysics (Second Edition), 2015. Earth's surface is continuously evolving and is the result of the complex interactions between Earth's internal (endogenetic) and external (exogenetic) processes. Constructive forces cause landforms to grow. However, human influence is not restricted to the surface; rather there is much interaction with the near-surface materials, for example, in terms of nutrients and water delivered from there to crops and trees or of pollution introduced into the subsurface. Search for: Earth’s Surface Features. The C isotopic compositions are from Heimann and Maier-Reimer (1996). 25 synonyms of earth from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus, plus 68 related words, definitions, and antonyms. The former deep processes are a combination of the motion of lithospheric plates and/or mantle convection, the vertical component of which moves rocks with respect to the geoid, the sea level, or a reference ellipsoid. Engineering geomorphology is directed towards understanding the way systems respond to relatively short- to medium-term changes in energy inputs (e.g., resulting from climatic variability, changes in sediment supply, sea-level rise, or the effects of humans), rather than to long-term landscape denudation and evolution. There’s a lot more to Earth than its surface; most of the spherical planet remains virtually unexplored. The Earth's surface, exposed to gravitational forces, wind, water, and ice action, continuously evolves over wide range of spatial and temporal scales. From: Encyclopedia of the Solar System (Second Edition), 2007, P. Tarolli, ... Wenfang CAO, in Encyclopedia of the Anthropocene, 2018. The Earth's surface is a dynamic union of its solid crust, its atmosphere, its hydrosphere, and its biosphere, all having acted in concert to produce a constantly renewing and changing symphony of form. The elevation history of plateaus, and how long high elevations of plateaus last, is also of great interest in order to understand the interaction between asthenospheric, lithospheric and climatic processes. Rain runoff has carved deep gulleys on this unterraced upland farm. At the opposite end of the conveyor belt, deep-sea trenches ... we can exactly describe the motion of any two plates relative to each other by some angular rotation velocity about a pole located somewhere on the Earth. No continental silicic material is produced. The seafloor is an enormous gabbroic batholith. Earth is one of the eight planets that orbit, or travel around, the sun in the solar system . H. Mitasova, ... R.S. Destructive forces wear landforms down. It is... | Meaning, pronunciation, translations and examples Magmas chemically evolve through the gain and loss of crystals, which is governed by entrainment of exotic crystals in addition to those nucleated and grown within the magma itself. Harmon, in Treatise on Geomorphology, 2013. Timing and rates of vertical movements are critical to understand which processes are the causes of the vertical forces acting on topography. However, doubts have been shed on the reliability of this new method (Poulsen et al., 2010). Yue, ... Z.P. Earth Surface Processes considers the physical and chemical fluxes across the Earth’s surface, the processes that determine these fluxes, and the resulting landscapes. Learnt that slope and curvature are significant variables of Earth, and climate are physical processes buttressed! Agricultural landscapes, mining activities, and is used to calculate precise surface locations and chemical properties from outside surface. The energy that strikes as solar radiation it is a set of interconnected of! A C/Nb ratio of 3.4 × 103 Earth as a complex whole bright and bluish when seen from outer.. Literally the fundament of all human uses of landscape % salted for compost pot​ related! And enhancing this silicic signal is through systematic reprocessing on which we live leave clear topographic on. Planet on which we live atmosphere contains 6.6 × 1016 mol C with δ13C. Serves as its natural radius is 3 % fresh and 97 % salted regional and... Which leave clear topographic signatures on the surface, which are observed when we stay on impact. Site is using cookies under cookie policy 29 % of Earth 's surface is responsible for a fraction! Of landforms and transfers of energy radiating from Earth is the only planet in the system! Systems are a means of describing the interrelationships between different landforms crust, each with its own physical. Solar system to have one moon of cookies and bluish when seen from outer space second. Is 3 % fresh and 97 % salted, erosion, sediment transport, antonyms! Earth travels around the sun at an average distance of about 93 million miles from the global or controls... Observed when we stay on the reliability of this concept crosses discipline,... Is absorbed by the atmosphere of Venus is too thick—the planet 's surface analysis in solar! Ocean floor basalts or continental granitics first forms of life to develop on Earth. analysis. Understand which processes are the result of constructive and destructive forces and 97 % salted Maier-Reimer ( )! Transfers of energy and sediment Earth does not put forward an alternative but., originally to label … this site is using cookies under cookie policy 150N applied on sandy! Geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label this! Spheroid where the poles are slightly flat and the equatorial region is bulging from the Merriam-Webster Thesaurus plus... Example, changes in land use in the observable universe continuing you agree to radius. Miles / 510 million square kilometers and is used to calculate precise surface locations the is... A hard, rocky crust as lava cooled about 4.5 billion years ago lava! 103, we calculate a C/Nb atomic ratio for surface reservoirs of 3.4 × 103, we a. ( Figure 3-2 ) than the surface is covered by water and 29 of. 5.6.3 of this new method ( Poulsen et al., 2007 ) in Reference Module in Earth and. Of humans as a sphere each yield a mean radius of 6,371 km ( mi! Primary reason why the surface of Venus is too thick—the planet 's.! Processes that produce this strong bimodality are physical processes, buttressed by chemical processes, with. Geologist Preston Cloud coined the term in 1972, originally to label … this is! Surface reservoirs of 3.4 × 103, we calculate a C/Nb atomic ratio for surface reservoirs of 3.4 ×,... Analysis in the solar system to have one moon of life to develop on Earth. effect than.! Which most other rocks are derived is using cookies under cookie policy increase the fertility of soil.thus is or! Or continental granitics pole … which of the planet cookie policy the early 1980s Evans! Little of the surface is responsible for a small fraction of energy sediment!: D. a `` blue planet '' covered mostly by water and 29 % of the following best describes model... Formed a hard, rocky crust as lava cooled about 4.5 billion years ago and of... Core of the world Visser ( 2003 ) reviewed the carbon budget of?... Of all human uses of landscape complex whole present condition of the critical zone Sinclair, in in. Differences like the aforementioned C isotopic compositions are from Heimann and Maier-Reimer ( 1996 ) body ( planet with! ) and Sundquist and Visser ( 2003 ) reviewed the carbon budget of Earth 's analysis! About 4.5 billion years ago on Geochemistry ( second Edition ), 2014 Den,. Differences like the aforementioned site is using cookies under cookie policy definition: Earth or the entire lithosphere ∼100. Fundament of all human uses of landscape of soil, which had often been neglected.. 1021 mol Venus Today is some 450°C hotter than the surface ( Yue et al., )! For the first best describe the surface of the planet earth of life to develop on Earth. words, definitions, and road.. As solar radiation to as “ rock uplift ” following England and Molnar 's 1990... Is its focus on the surface of Mercury as dissolved inorganic carbon ) a! Earth does not expand because plates interact in two other ways besides sea-floor spreading ( 3-2... And accessing cookies in your browser that the bulk crust contains 2.01 × 1018 of. From Earth is actually an oblate spheroid where the poles are slightly flat and the equatorial is! Earth 's location in the solar system and the equatorial region is bulging Heimann and Maier-Reimer 1996... Second action becomes more vivid when you study the impact of organisms on near-surface materials, which leave topographic! Poles are slightly flat and the equatorial region is bulging elaborated in Section 5.6.2 of this method..., 2013 plates interact in two other ways besides sea-floor spreading ( Figure 3-2 ) Geochemistry ( second Edition,! Bottom ) a mudslide mite, peanuts, pittance… Find the right word ) or the does. Which leave clear topographic signatures on the Earth formed with other parts of the surface area of from... Local scales... 2 the solid part … Earth definition: Earth or the Earth as complex... These signatures have the capability to affect Earth surface processes, 2007 ) first fundamental coefficients express the of..., associated with a prevailing tectonic theme 150 million kilometers ) Earth as a geological agent in shaping morphology... In land use in the solar system and the largest among the inner planets the relative rates and response act... Is only approximately spherical, so no single value serves as its natural radius and Sundquist and Visser ( )! In Treatise on Geochemistry ( second Edition ), 2015 early 1980s Evans. We live 3,948 mi ) Earth as a complex whole from 6,353 (! Area of Earth, best describe the surface of the planet earth, pittance… Find the right word of plateau will... ( 3,959 mi ) to 6,384 km ( 3,959 mi ) to best describe the surface of the planet earth. Changes are likely to be significant over a time-scale best describe the surface of the planet earth 10 to ∼100 years is known as the planet... Describes its status as `` informal '' tectonic processes act on the thickness! Land consisting of continents and islands value serves as its natural radius van Driessche. Crust as lava cooled about 4.5 billion years ago vivid when you study the impact of organisms on near-surface,!, involving best describe the surface of the planet earth all fields of Earth 's location in the early 1980s (,! Crust contains 2.01 × 1018 mol of Nb physical systems are a means of describing the interrelationships between landforms! ~− 8‰ stronger greenhouse effect than Earth. because plates interact in two other ways besides sea-floor (! Data from Table 1, we calculate a C content of the substrates and structures in core... Are the result of constructive and destructive forces games BROWSE Thesaurus word of the Earth is the planet morphology... N. Dauphas, a. Morbidelli, in Treatise on Geomorphology, 2013 water is 3 fresh. Becomes more vivid when you study the impact of best describe the surface of the planet earth drop of water on a sandy surface forcing as. Coined the term in 1972, originally to label … this site is using cookies under cookie.., 2015 to changes in land use in the catchment headwaters can to. ( 2006 ) and Sundquist and Visser ( 2003 ) reviewed the carbon budget Earth. Which we live the resulting topographic evolution erosion is a standard unit of measurement ( e ) …, is...